Adaptation and climate resilience in the energy system (2019 report)

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PLEASE PROVIDE GENERAL COMMENTS HERE 9
1. Introduction
    1.1. Purpose and content of this report
        1.1.1. Purpose and target audience 0
        1.1.2. Challenges facing the European energy system 9
        1.1.3. Outline 2
    1.2. Scope of the report
        1.2.1. Thematic scope 5
        1.2.2. Geographical scope 3
    1.3. What do adaptation and climate resilience mean? 3
    1.4. Development of this report 0
2. The energy system in Europe
    2.1. The current energy system in Europe 3
        2.1.1. Primary energy supply 8
        2.1.2. Energy transformation 1
        2.1.3. Transportation, transmission, storage and distribution 10
        2.1.4. Energy demand 3
        2.1.5. Interaction with other sectors 14
    2.2. Building a low-carbon energy system 1
        2.2.1. Global policy targets and energy scenarios 4
        2.2.2. European policy targets and energy scenarios 5
        2.2.3. Key trends for the future energy system in Europe 26
3. Climate change impacts on the European energy system 1
    3.1. Recent and projected climate change in Europe 8
        3.1.1. Air and water temperature 1
        3.1.2. Water availability 3
        3.1.3. Extreme weather events 5
        3.1.4. Coastal and marine hazards 0
    3.2. Available assessments of climate change impacts on the European energy system 1
        3.2.1. Global and European literature reviews 1
        3.2.2. Model-based assessments of climate change impacts on electricity supply 1
        3.2.3. Economic assessments of climate change impacts on the energy system 2
    3.3. Changing water availability for power production 1
        3.3.1. Hydropower plants 8
        3.3.2. Thermal power plants 4
        3.3.3. Solar power plants 3
    3.4. Infrastructure risks from extreme weather events 1
        3.4.1. Maritime hazards 4
        3.4.2. Inland flooding 1
        3.4.3. Storms 2
        3.4.4. Heat waves and forest fires 4
        3.4.5. Combined and cascading effects 6
    3.5. Climate-driven changes in energy demand 0
        3.5.1. Heating and cooling degree days 6
        3.5.2. Total energy demand for heating and cooling 10
        3.5.3. Peak electricity demand for cooling 3
        3.5.4. Energy demand for water provision 1
    3.6. Further climate change impacts on the energy system 0
        3.6.1. Wind, solar and bioenergy energy potential 6
        3.6.2. Fossil fuel supply from Arctic regions 1
        3.6.3. Efficiency of energy transformation and transmission 3
        3.6.4. Fuel transport 2
        3.6.5. Global climate change impacts affecting the European energy system 0
    3.7. Summary of climate change impacts and adaptation needs 14
4. Building a climate-resilient energy system 0
    4.1. Adaptation types, actors and barriers
        4.1.1. Types of adaptation actions 2
        4.1.2. Adaptation actors in the energy system 2
        4.1.3. Role of governments 8
        4.1.4. Adaptation barriers – and ways to overcome them 8
    4.2. EU policies and actions 0
        4.2.1. EU energy policy 4
        4.2.2. EU adaptation strategy and related actions 2
        4.2.3. Developing and sharing the knowledge base for adaptation 2
        4.2.4. Adaptation funding 0
    4.3. Activities by countries 0
        4.3.1. Overview 3
        4.3.2. Selected national CCIV assessments for energy 0
        4.3.3. Reporting obligations for infrastructure providers 2
        4.3.4. Guidance for climate change risk assessments and resilience planning 2
        4.3.5. Climate and weather services 3
    4.4. Activities by other European and international organisations 0
        4.4.1. International organisations 1
        4.4.2. Financing institutions 1
        4.4.3. Standardisation organisations 5
        4.4.4. Energy regulators 2
    4.5. Activities by sector associations 0
        4.5.1. European network operators 0
        4.5.2. International sector associations 1
    4.6. Adaptation case studies from energy utilities and network providers 0
        4.6.1. Flood risk management for hydropower plants 0
        4.6.2. Hydropower expansion in response to increased glacier melt 0
        4.6.3. Improved resilience of biomass fuel supply chain 1
        4.6.4. Replacing overhead lines with underground cables 3
        4.6.5. Adapting overhead lines to increasing temperatures 0
5. Conclusions 26
Annex 1: Information sources for country overview table 2
References 1