Table of contents

2.1. The current energy system in Europe

This section examines the key components of the European energy system. It provides a descriptive and quantitative characterisation of each energy system component covering its key stakeholders and the most relevant changes taking place. It also reviews the interaction of the energy system with other sectors. This report applies the terminology of energy aggregates according to IEA/OECD (see Box 2.1). Furthermore, the term “EU+” is used to refer to the EU28 plus Iceland, Norway and Turkey. These are the 31 EEA member countries for which detailed energy statistics are available from Eurostat (i.e. all EEA member countries with the exception of Switzerland and Liechtenstein).

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Box 2.1 Main energy aggregates according to IEA/OECD

Energy production: the production of primary energy, i.e. fossil fuels, nuclear energy, renewables and the heat from heat pumps extracted from the environment.

Total primary energy supply (TPES): the sum of production, net trade balance (imports minus exports), stock changes and net of international marine and aviation bunkers. It is the energy a country has at its disposal in order to meet domestic demand.

Final energy consumption: the sum of the consumption in the end-use sectors. By and large, it accounts for what is delivered to the final consumer. It includes non-energy uses, which will be accounted for in the present chapter, but they will not be assessed in terms of vulnerabilities and adaptation in the rest of the report. Energy directly used by the energy sector for transformation or own use is excluded.

Source: (IEA, 2018c)

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