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Final energy consumption

Final energy consumption in Europe (EU+) grew until 2006, then declined until 2014, and started increasing again afterwards (Figure 2‑5). The transport sector accounted for the largest part of the final energy demand in 2016 (33 %), followed by industry (26 %), households (25 %), and services (14 %). The decline in energy demand was caused by the combined effects of large energy savings in industry and the residential sector. Most of the energy savings in industry are due to increasing energy efficiency and structural changes towards less energy intensive industries (Voigt et al., 2014). Relocation of carbon-intensive production outside of Europe, also known as carbon leakage, is one element of the structural change in the European industry (Paroussos et al., 2015). The recent economic crisis also played a role by reducing industrial output and thereby the total energy demand (EC, 2017a). In the residential sector, energy savings were primarily caused by more efficient heating and the diffusion of more efficient electric appliances (EEA, 2016d). Energy demand in the services sector and the transport sector is still increasing, despite the increasing fuel economy of the vehicle fleet. Rising energy demand in the services sector can be explained by economic growth and structural change. The growth of energy use in transport is primarily driven by an increase in air travel and road freight transportation.

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