Table of contents

3.1.1. Air and water temperature

Air temperature is on the rise globally and in Europe. Globally, 16 of the 17 warmest years on record have occurred since 2000. European land temperatures in the most recent decade (2008-2017) were 1.6°C-1.7°C above pre-industrial levels. Winter temperatures have increased most in northern Europe, and summer temperatures most in southern Europe (EEA, 2018c). This trend is likely to continue in the future, as a result of the emissions already released to the atmosphere and those expected to be emitted in the coming decades.

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In parallel with air temperature, lake and river temperature has increased by 1-3°C over the past century (Dokulil, 2013; EEA, 2016g). Inland surface waters are projected to warm further, and changes in surface water temperature generally align with those in regional air temperature.

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