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3.4.2. Inland flooding

River and flash floods are expected to increase in many parts of Europe, as a consequence of increasing heavy precipitation events. Inland floods can have significant impacts on energy infrastructure, such as electric substations and oil and gas pipelines (Varianou Mikellidou et al., 2017). Heavy and prolonged rainfall throughout Portugal in 2000 caused levee damages and overtopping of dams. The subsequent flooding threatened to damage a major gas pipeline in the area, leading to the evacuation of over 100 people (Cruz and Krausmann, 2013). River-based transport of fuels may also be affected.

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Country-level analysis shows that the absolute level of impacts and adaptation needs related to inland flooding are particularly high in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic (Rojas et al., 2013). Adaptation options include risk-based planning, dyke construction, component-based flood barriers and relocation (Ebinger and Vergara, 2011).

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