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3.5.4. Energy demand for water provision

While temperature change is the main pathway how climate change can impact energy demand, changes in water availability can also have an effect, in particular by affecting the demand for energy-intensive seawater desalination. The EU currently has around 13 % of global desalination capacity, most of it in Spain. Whilst large increases in global electricity demand for desalination are anticipated, there are currently no quantitative estimates for Europe. However, decreasing precipitation, increased evaporation due to increasing temperatures, and saltwater intrusion due to rising sea levels combined with socio-economic changes could increase energy demand for desalination to help meet water demand for agriculture, households and other uses in water-stressed regions in southern Europe (IEA, 2016c).

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