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Climate change is projected to increase the risk of river flow droughts in several regions of Europe (see Section 3.1.2). Inland navigation can be restricted during drought conditions due to low water levels in rivers. For example, the unprecedented drought that affected considerable parts of Europe in spring and summer 2018 resulted in restrictions to the shipping of commodities, including coal and oil, on the Rhine, Elbe and Danube rivers. Shallow waters required vessel operators to reduce loads, which led to increased shipping costs, with subsequent knock-on effects throughout the supply chain (Lehane, 2018).

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  • Claus Kondrup (invited by Hans-Martin F├╝ssel) 14 Feb 2019 16:37:47

    Lines 1737-1739, drought may not only lead to increased shipping costs but also capacity limitations, delays, just-in-time disruptions and storage costs.

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