Table of contents

4.3.1. Overview

Table 4‑4 gives an overview of the engagement of national governments with respect to climate change adaptation in the energy system, based on a number of published documents. It is important to note that this overview is necessarily incomplete, and that these documents cannot necessarily be compared across countries due to differing national circumstances. Despite those caveats, the tabular overview provides some indication of the level of engagement across Europe.

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The data sources and assessment approach for each of the columns in Table 4‑4 is described below. Further information on the underlying reasons for the ‘colour coding’ is provided in Annex 1. Updated information on countries’ adaptation activities is available on the country pages of Climate-ADAPT[1].

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  • Availability of national CCIV assessment:

Climate change impacts, vulnerability and risk (CCIV) assessments are key components of adaptation policy development. They facilitate the development of national and/or sectoral adaptation strategies and plans by identifying focal areas for action. The assessment here is based on a recent EEA report, which provides an overview of multi-sectoral CCIV assessments in EEA member countries based on a desk review and a country survey (EEA, 2018d) (updated in the case of Poland).

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  • Coverage of energy sector in CCIV assessment:

The assessment here is based primarily on the coverage of the energy sector in multi-sectoral CCIV assessments, in particular those reviewed in (EEA, 2018d)[2]. Sectoral CCIV assessments, National Communications to the UNFCCC and other documents were also considered where available and relevant.

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  • NAS and/or NAP adopted:

National adaptation strategies (NAS) and plans (NAP) are government documents that help integrating climate change adaptation considerations into the national decision-making processes. A NAS assesses the risks and vulnerabilities of climate change in order to establish the significance of such projected impacts on different sectors, policy domains and/or regions. A NAP aims to implement concrete measures in order to achieve the objectives established in an NAS. However, the distinction is not always clear-cut given different national circumstances. For EU Member States, information on the status of NAS and NAP is based on (EC, 2018h); for other EEA member countries, it is based on (EEA and EC, 2018; EEA, 2018e) (updated in the case of Liechtenstein). Dark green indicates that a NAS and NAP are in place; yellow indicates that only a NAS is in place; red indicates that neither a NAS nor a NAP is in place.

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  • Coverage of energy sector in NAS and/or NAP:

The assessment here is based on a brief analysis of the NAP and/or the NAS (see previous column). A NAS or NAP under development was also considered (where applicable). The colour scheme reflects both the type of policy document and the depth of coverage of the energy system. Specifically, green colouring requires that significant parts of the energy system are addressed in an adopted NAP (not just a NAS).

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  • Adaptation measures implemented in the energy sector:

The evaluation in these two columns is based on two different documents, which are explained below. In both cases, the colour coding considers several factors, in particular the specificity of a measure (e.g. generic activity vs. activity targeted at the energy system), the proximity to implementation (e.g. preparatory activities such as studies and capacity building vs. concrete actions such as legal and regulatory requirements or physical measures), the degree of initiative (e.g. participating in a transnational cooperation vs. initiating action), and the size of the activity (e.g. small pilot project vs. comprehensive sectoral strategy). The final assessment unavoidably includes some subjective element.

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Adaptation preparedness scoreboard Country fiches have been developed by the Commission, in consultation with Member States, in order to assess the adaptation preparedness of all EU Member States based on a number of indicators. They have been published together with the evaluation of the EU Adaptation Strategy (see Section 0). The assessment here is based on a brief analysis of the Country fiches (EC, 2018h). Literature cited in the Country fiches was also considered where relevant.

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The UNFCCC requires parties included in its Annex I to submit National Communications (NC) every four years. All EEA ­member countries are included in Annex I of the UNFCCC, and therefore they had to submit their 7th NC by 1 January 2018. Within these communications, parties must show the activities they have undertaken by reporting on greenhouse gas emissions, measures taken to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and measures to counteract adverse effects of climate change. The assessment here was based on a brief analysis of the 7th NCs to the UNFCCC[3].

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Table 4‑4 Coverage of the energy system in key national adaptation documents

Country

Climate change impact, vulnerability and risk (CCIV) assessments

National Adaptation Strategies (NAS) and
National Adaptation Plans (NAP)

Country fiches

UNFCCC

Availability of national CCIV assessment

Coverage of energy sector in national CCIV assessment

NAS and/or NAP adopted

Coverage of energy sector in NAS and/or NAP

 

Adaptation measures implemented in the energy sector

Adaptation measures implemented in the energy sector

Austria

 


 




Belgium

 


 




Bulgaria

 

 

 


 


Croatia

 


 




Cyprus

 


 

 



Czechia

 


 

 



Denmark

 


 


   

Estonia

 


 



 

Finland

 


 



 

France

 


 



 

Germany

 


 



 

Greece

 


 



 

Hungary

 


 



 

Iceland

 


 



 

Ireland

 


 



 

Italy

 


 



 

Latvia

 


 



 

Liechtenstein

 


 



 

Lithuania

 


 



 

Luxembourg

 


 



 

Malta

 


 



 

Netherlands

 


 



 

Norway

 


 



 

Poland

 


 



 

Portugal

 


 



 

Romania

 


 



 

Slovakia

 


 



 

Slovenia

 


 



 

Spain

 


 



 

Sweden

 


 



 

Switzerland

 


 



 

Turkey

 


 



 

United Kingdom

 


 



 

Source: Authors’ compilation based on data from (EEA, 2018e, 2018d; EEA and EC, 2018; UNFCCC, 2017; EC, 2018h). Further information is available in the main text and in Annex 1.

Note: Green: in place/ identified; orange: in progress/ partially in place, red= not in place/ limited or no action, grey= not applicable.

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Table 4‑4 shows that all EU Member States and three other EEA member countries have conducted a multi-sectoral national CCIV assessment. Almost all of these assessments have included the energy sector to some degree. Some countries have conducted specific assessments for the energy sector (see Annex 1 for details). Most EEA member countries have adopted a NAS, and about half of them a NAP. Most, but not all, NAS and NAP include energy as a relevant sector for adaptation. Country Fiches and NCs include adaptation actions in the energy sector only for a small number of countries. The majority of actions reported are preparatory actions, such as capacity building. Note that implementation of adaptation action in the energy system may also occur in countries who have not reported this, because the majority of concrete measures would be implemented by private infrastructure providers.

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The evaluation of the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change gives some further insights into adaptation needs of the energy sector. The stakeholders involved in the consultation process identified climate proofing of energy infrastructures as the priority area of intervention for adaptation in the energy sector. They have also pointed out that energy is one of the areas in which knowledge gaps persist (EC, 2018i).

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A comprehensive review of all NASs and NAPs, many of which are only available in the national language(s), is beyond the scope of this report. However, the subsequent subsections present some examples how national governments have facilitated adaptation planning and implementation in the electricity system, through different measures.

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