Table of contents

4.4.1. International organisations

International organisations can support climate change adaptation by providing guidance, serving as information sharing platforms and facilitating communities of practice. These roles are particularly useful in helping good practice from around the world to be shared more widely. International organisations with relevance for adaptation in the European energy system and their most relevant activities are presented below.

comments (1)

The World Bank was the first international organisation that addressed climate change adaptation specifically in the energy sector through its Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. In 2011, the World Bank published a comprehensive report on climate impacts and adaptation in the energy system, which was based on an expert workshop in 2009 (Ebinger and Vergara, 2011). This report addressed policy makers, energy planners and practitioners primarily in developing countries, but many of its findings are relevant also in industrialized countries. The background for this report was the recognition that developing countries were making considerable investments into energy infrastructure, with a focus on improving energy access and lowering greenhouse gas emissions, but that the energy sector was underrepresented in the adaptation literature and activities. The report provides an overview of the knowledge on potential climate change impacts on energy systems, including its links with other sectors, it presents emerging practice and tools, and it provides recommendations for integrating adaptation considerations into energy planning and operational practices. Some of the key messages and recommendations are that energy resources, infrastructure, services and demand are affected by climate change now and in the future; that adaptation is essential, both in relation to existing and new infrastructure; that integrated planning approaches for the energy sector should address climate change mitigation and adaptation jointly; and that they need to consider the energy-water nexus. These findings are still relevant today. The report also identified obstacles for adaptation and priority actions.

comments (0)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) has addressed climate resilience in the energy system in several of its reports and through other activities since 2013. The publications and forums produced by the IEA are targeted towards governments, businesses and organisations involved in the energy system. The chapter ‘Managing climate risks to the energy sector’ in a 2013 IEA report covered both sudden and gradual impacts of climate change on energy demand and supply, it stressed the need to address climate change mitigation and adaptation jointly, and it made recommendations for measures enhancing climate resilience (IEA, 2013). This work was expanded in two reports in 2015 and 2016 (IEA, 2015, 2016b). These publications focussed on climate risks related to extreme weather and water stress. They provided further insights into the synergies and trade-offs between different decarbonisation pathways and climate resilience. They also provided specific recommendations as to the role of governments in building climate resilience in the energy system, through policies, information and services, resilience of state-owned assets, and mobilizing financial resources (see also Section 4.1.3). The development of these reports has been supported by an IEA forum series focusing on the climate-energy security nexus. This series included fora on the water and energy nexus and on policies and practices to enhance energy sector resilience (IEA, 2014, 2016a, 2016c). Issues relevant to climate change adaptation are also addressed in other IEA reports, such as the recent IEA report ‘The Future for Cooling’ (IEA, 2018a).

comments (0)

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has a programme of work that aims to integrate climate change into infrastructure decisions. It has recently published a policy paper on climate-resilient infrastructure (CRI), including energy infrastructure, which builds on relevant experience from OECD and G20 countries (OECD, 2018). This policy paper provides a framework for planning and designing CRI, strengthening the enabling environment for CRI, and mobilising investment in CRI. Among others, it encourages governments to ensure that international, national and local approaches to policies, standards and regulations are aligned to facilitate adaptation within the private sector.

comments (0)

The OECD, the World Bank and UN Environment have jointly developed a report on ‘Financing Climate Futures’ (OECD/World Bank/UN Environment, 2018). This report identifies six transformational areas that are required to ensure that infrastructure is aligned to the aims of the Paris Agreement.

comments (0)

IRENA has published a report on the water-energy-food nexus (see Section 2.1.5) (IRENA, 2015). This report explores integrated solutions for jointly meeting policy goals for these strongly linked sectors under climate change, with a particular focus on the role of renewable energy technologies.

comments (0)

The IRENA approach sets out criteria for analysing the water-energy-food nexus, which help guiding policy makers away from the ‘silo-approach’ to integrated resource planning.

comments (0)