Table of contents

Annex 1: Information sources for country overview table

This Annex provides further information on the information sources for Table 4‑4 Coverage of the energy system in key national adaptation documents (page 74). Specific information sources and the colour codes are explained in the main text.

Country

Document

Climate change impact, vulnerability and risk (CCIV) assessments

National Adaptation Strategies (NAS) and
National Adaptation Plans (NAP)

Country fiches

UNFCCC

Availability of national CCIV assessment

Coverage of energy sector in national CCIV assessment

NAS and/or NAP adopted

Coverage of energy sector in NAS and/or NAP

 

Adaptation measures implemented in the energy sector

Adaptation measures implemented in the energy sector

Austria

 

The Austrian Assessment Report 2014 (AAR14) contains a whole section on Energy and Transport (APCC, 2014).

 

The NAP includes an action field ‘Energy’ with a focus on ‘Power supply’ (Government of Austria, 2017).

Climate adaptation is reported as being integrated into sectoral policies for energy (among others), but no concrete information is provided.

No adaptation actions reported

Belgium

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on energy (Technum, 2013).

 

The NAP includes energy as one of the priority areas (National Climate Commission, 2017a).

The Benelux countries have organized workshops on adaptation in several sectors, including energy. The drafting of the New Industrial Policy to be introduced in the Flemish Region will incorporate the risks of volatile energy costs due to climate change (Government of Flanders, 2016).

Studies on ‘Needs in adequation and flexibility of electric system (2016)’ and promotion of sustainable energy generation methods independent of the availability of water resources (National Climate Commission, 2017b).

Bulgaria

 

The national CCIV assessment focusses on natural disasters. It does not include a specific section on energy, but the energy sector is covered to a limited degree (Government of Bulgaria, 2013)

 

The draft NAS/NAP document includes a section on energy (Dale et al., 2018).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Croatia

 

The national CCIV assessment includes various sections on energy sector vulnerabilities to climate change, with high risk areas throughout the sector identified (Government of Croatia, 2017b).

 

The draft NAS contains a section on energy (Government of Croatia, 2017a).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Cyprus

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a focus on energy (Government of Cyprus, 2016).

 

The NAP includes a section on energy (Government of Cyprus, 2017)

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Czechia

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on climate change risks to Czech industry and energy (Government of Czech Republic, 2015).

 

The NAP includes ‘Industry and Energy’ as one of its priority sectors (Government of Czech Republic, 2017)

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Denmark

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on energy, which addresses energy consumption, energy production, wind changes, import/export changes, biomass production (Government of Denmark, 2012b).

 

The NAS includes energy as one of the sectors where climate change will have significant impact (Government of Denmark, 2008). The NAP focusses on managing pluvial floods and does not specifically address the energy system (Government of Denmark, 2012a).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Estonia

 

The national CCIV assessment (a part of the NAS) includes a section on security of energy supply, including energy independence, security, resources, energy efficiency, heat generation and electricity generation (Government of Estonia, 2017).

 

The NAP includes a section on Energy and security of supply (Government of Estonia, 2017). More specific objectives are included in the Estonian Climate Adaptation Strategy for Infrastructure and Energy and in the National Strategy for Climate Change in the Infrastructure and the Energy Sector 2017–2030 (Lahtvee et al., 2015a, 2015b).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Finland

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on energy distribution and production, which identifies risks such as disturbances to energy production and distribution, maintenance costs increase of the energy network, flood risks of nuclear power plants, weaker solar power, increased need for cooling (Government of Finland, 2013).

 

The NAP acknowledges climate change impacts on energy, but no specific actions are suggested (Government of Finland, 2014).

Long-term climate changes have been included in the legislation on water resources, among which the Dam Safety Act (2009) may be relevant for hydropower. The country fiche mentions that electricity market legislation includes security of supply provisions, but it is not clear whether these cover climate-related issues.

The Electricity Market Act includes regulations aimed at improving the security of the energy supply in network fault situations. Specifically, the distribution network must be designed, built and maintained in such a way that when the network is damaged due to a storm or snow, the electricity interruption for the customers should not exceed six hours in detailed planned areas and 36 hours in other areas.

France

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on energy, which addresses climate change impacts on energy consumption, hydropower production, and energy transport (Government of France, 2009).

 

Energy and industry are included as a key sector within the NAP (Government of France, 2011).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Germany

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on the ‘Action Field’ Energy Industry, with ‘strong changes’ projected for: heating energy demand; cooling energy demand; cooling water for thermal power stations; damage to power stations and production facilities (Government of Germany, 2015).

 

The NAP includes energy (conversion, transport and supply) as one of 15 sectors covered (Government of Germany, 2011).

 The progress report on the implementation of the NAP mentions adaptation activities in the climate proofing of the energy sector, for example in terms of water use for cooling of thermal plants and for hydropower (Bundesregierung, 2015)

The government is implementing ‘a comprehensive portfolio of services addressing climate change and adaptation’. This includes the establishment of the German Climate Service in 2015. This service addresses many sectors and impact domains, including energy.

Greece

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on ‘Built Environment’, which includes power supply networks. Impacts include, amongst others, an increase in summer energy demand, decrease in winter energy demand, damage from fires (Bank of Greece, 2011).

 

A Sectoral Adaptation Plan for Energy and Climate is under development (EC, 2018h, footnote 739)

No significant adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Hungary

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on the energy sector (Government of Hungary, 2017b).

 

The draft Second National Climate Change Strategy contains energy as a priority sector for adaptation actions (Government of Hungary, 2017a).

No significant adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Iceland

 

No information available

 

No information available

Country fiches only applicable to EU Member States

No adaptation actions reported

Ireland

 

The most recent national CCIV assessment includes a section on ‘Critical Infrastructure and the Built Environment’, which includes climate change impacts on energy demand, supply, transport and transmission (Desmond et al., 2017).

 

An Electricity and Gas Networks NAP will be prepared by the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment for 2019 (Government of Ireland, 2018b). A previous version of this plan was released in February under the National Climate Change Adaptation Framework of 2012. The focus of the current plan is on electricity generation and electricity and gas transmission and distribution infrastructures and interconnectors.

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Italy

 

CCIV assessment includes a section on climate change impacts on heating and cooling, electricity demand, production of electricity, transmission and distribution (Government of Italy, 2014).

 

Both the NAS (Government of Italy, 2014) and the first draft of the NAP include a specific section on energy (CMCC, 2017). The NAP includes a priority ranking of measures for energy transformation, transmission, distribution and demand

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Latvia

 

The national CCIV assessment includes sections on the power transmission and distribution systems and on natural gas infrastructure (Government of Latvia, 2017).

 

No information available. A national Adaptation Strategy is under preparation.

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Liechtenstein

 

The 7th National Communication to the UNFCCC mentions energy as a vulnerable sector in relation to energy consumption and hydropower generation (Government of Liechtenstein, 2017)

 

The NAS mentions specific adaptation actions related to energy (Government of Liechtenstein, 2018)

Country fiches only applicable to EU Member States

One of Liechtenstein’s hydroelectric power plants (Samina) has been transformed into a pumped-storage plant. This measure increases flexibility in power production and facilitates adaptation to expected changes in the runoff regime due to climate change.

Lithuania

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section which sets out various threats to the energy sector (Government of Lithuania, 2015).

 

The latest NAP includes various adaptation actions related to the energy sector (Government of Lithuania, 2018).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Luxembourg

 

The national CCIV assessment focusses on spatial planning. Potential climate change impacts on the energy sector are mentioned briefly in a table (Government of Luxembourg, 2012).

 

The current NAS does not specifically mention the energy sector (Europaforum, 2011). However, a revised NAS is under preparation, and a draft was adopted by the Luxembourg's Council of Ministers in April 2018 (EC, 2018p). According to a national press source, this draft indicates energy as a priority area, (Chronicle.lu, 2018).

No domestic adaptation actions were reported. However, Luxembourg participates in adaptation activities of the Benelux countries, which include the energy sector.

No adaptation actions reported

Malta

 

The national CCIV assessment does not explicitly mention the energy sector (Malta Resources Authority, 2010).

 

Energy is not a priority sector within NAS (Government of Malta, 2012).

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Netherlands

 

The national CCIV assessment includes energy as a key sector (Ligtvoet et al., 2015). Additionally, a sectoral CCIV assessment for the energy sector is available (Vogel et al., 2014).

 

The NAS includes energy as one of nine priority sectors (Government of the Netherlands, 2016). The NAP refers to climate change impacts on the energy sector, but adaptation in this sector is not a priority for 2018–2019 (Government of the Netherlands, 2018).

There are systematic capacity-building initiatives on adaptation with regional and local governments and sector representatives from several sectors, including the energy sector. The Benelux countries have organized exploratory workshops and executed cross-border risk analysis in several areas, including energy.

Several grid managers have conducted research to determine the potential impact of climate change such as flooding on their section of the infrastructure. Research has also examined how a large-scale power outage would affect the chain of vital functions.

Norway

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on vulnerabilities of power supply (Government of Norway, 2010).

 

The NAS includes aspects relevant to the energy sector in various places (Government of Norway, 2012)

Country fiches only applicable to EU Member States

Several policies are in place to ensure a reliable power supply in a changing climate. For example, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) sets requirements to electricity utilities in terms of proper contingency planning, available spare parts, transport and communica­tion systems, training etc., to enable an efficient restoration of electricity supply. Furthermore, NVE conducts research and development in the light of anticipated challenges of the energy sec­tor from climate change.

Poland

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on the energy sector (KLIMADA, 2013).

 

The NAS includes a separate action line on the energy sector (Government of Poland, 2013).

No significant adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Portugal

 

The SIAM II project "Climate Change in Portugal: Scenarios, Impacts, and Adaptation Measures" addressed climate change impacts on the energy sector, in particular on solar energy, water availability for power, and heating and cooling demand (Aguiar et al., 2006). Furthermore, a report drafted as supporting material for the NAS covers the vulnerabilities of the energy sector (Government of Portugal, 2012).

 

The latest NAS (ENAAC 2020) includes a separate section on energy (Government of Portugal, 2015).

The 2015-2016 interim evaluation of the implementation progress of the NAS (Government of Portugal, 2016), reports that “Existing policy around security of energy supply and climate change mitigation are broadly in line with adaptation objectives, including policies to increase networks, adopt smart grids and promoted distributed production. An area identified for further policy development is climate proofing of energy assets”.

No adaptation actions reported

Romania

 

The National Climate Strategy includes a section on energy (Government of Romania, 2016a).

 

The NAP includes a separate section on energy (Government of Romania, 2016b).

No significant adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Slovakia

 

The national CCIV assessment includes a section on the energy system (Mindas et al., 2011).

 

The NAS includes a separate section on energy (Government of Slovakia, 2014)

No adaptation actions reported

No adaptation actions reported

Slovenia

 

The national CCIV assessment focusses on water; no energy- specific section could be identified (Government of Slovenia, 2010).

 

The NAS does not specifically address the energy sector (Government of Slovenia, 2016).

The Flood Risk Mitigation Plan 2017-2021 defines a large set of flood protection projects which include adapting of energy infrastructure. However, this plan does not currently consider climate change scenarios. At the transnational level, the Water and Climate Adaptation Plan for the Sava River Basin acts as a guidance document to governments for climate adaptation measures in various water-related issues, including hydropower.

No adaptation actions reported

Spain

 

The early national CCIV assessment includes a section on energy (Government of Spain, 2005). A detailed assessments for the energy sector was conducted later (Girardi et al., 2015).

 

The current NAP (PNACC WP3) includes a section on energy (Government of Spain, 2014).

National adaptation activities in Spain related to the energy sector comprise a detailed sectoral CCIV assessment, a pilot project with Endesa (the largest electric utility company in Spain), capacity building actions and networking with regional authorities and mainstreaming activities (Government of Spain, 2018).

No adaptation actions reported

Sweden

 

The national CCIV assessment includes sections on energy production, supply, heating and cooling needs, and dam safety (Andersson et al., 2015).

 

The NAS includes a section on energy and water supply (Government of Sweden, 2018)

The scope of environmental impact assessments, which includes amendments to hydropower, municipal energy planning, pipelines and nuclear activity was broadened in order to consider climate change impacts (Government of Sweden, 2017). Furthermore, in 2018 the government tasked a number of agencies with creating a sectoral adaptation plan or report on their adaptation work, including the Swedish Energy Agency, Swedish grids and the National Electrical Safety Board.

No adaptation actions reported

Switzerland

 

The national CCIV assessment addresses climate change impacts on cooling and heating needs, and the seasonal shift of hydropower generation (Köllner et al., 2017).

 

The NAP includes a section on energy (Government of Switzerland, 2014).

Country fiches only applicable to EU Member States

Multiple adaptation measures have been reported at the cantonal level related to ‘cooling of thermal power plants, hydropower production, thermal power production and energy’, but it remains unclear what these measures are and how they related to climate change projections. At the federal level, several adaptation measures are being planned and implemented, such as taking the changing climate into account in supervision and licensing processes for hydroelectric dams and reservoirs as well as for transmission and distribution networks for gas and electricity. More specific information is available in an annex to the NAP (Government of Switzerland, 2014, Annex A5)

Turkey

 

The national CCIV assessment focusses on water-related impacts, but energy-related impacts are addressed briefly in this context (Government of Turkey, 2016).

 

Energy-related aspects are mentioned within the section on ‘Water resources management’ of the NAS/NAP, with a focus on hydropower (Government of Turkey, 2011).

Country fiches only applicable to EU Member States

No adaptation actions reported

United Kingdom

 

The most recent national CCIV assessment includes a chapter on infrastructure, which covers also energy infrastructure (Committee on Climate Change, 2017).

 

The most recent NAP includes a section on the energy sector (Government of the UK, 2018).

The 2017 progress report on the NAP acknowledged significant progress in increasing the climate resilience of energy infrastructure, with a focus on flood risk management. A large range of measures have already been carried out, including: critical upgrading of electric substations against flooding; investment in mobile flood protection; electricity generators addressing the risk of water scarcity; and risk assessment of nuclear installations and of gas networks. These measures were facilitated by government policies, including reporting requirements for critical infrastructure providers, mandatory climate risk assessments for new infrastructure projects and improved standards for network resilience (Committee on Climate Change, 2017).

The Climate Ready Support Service for England helped organisations build their own capacity to adapt by incorporating climate risk management into their plans and decision making- providing guidance tools and support to key sectors (including energy). A National Risk Assessment and Sector Resilience Plans that consider climate change have identified key risks and vulnerabilities. The Adaptation Reporting Power enables the government to monitor the implementation of risk reduction strategies.

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