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Financing for local adaptation measures is generally available through these main sources:

  • Governmental sources – mostly grants, such as international and EU funding instruments, national, regional and local/municipality budgets. These governmental sources are supplied by individuals and companies paying taxes, fees, charges, etc. 
  • Banks and other financial institutions provide loans or guarantees either directly or in partnerships with local retail banks
  • Private stakeholders such as foundations, real estate developers, companies (especially those at risk of climate change), house owners and individuals that invest directly in measures or via crowd funding and green bonds
  • No/low cost solutions through early integration of adaptation needs into urban planning and design, supporting regulations or mainstreaming of adaptation measures into other municipal areas such as water management, health, nature etc.

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