4. Eleven cases of financing urban adaptation

Map 1: Eleven case studies of financing urban adaptation

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City

Case study title

Financing source

Financing  type(s)[1]

Financing mechanism(s)[2]

Adaptation measures financed

Hamburg

Financial incentive programme enabling Hamburg’s Green Roof   Strategy

                                                                             

    

Subsidy for   implementation of green roofs

A fund managed   by local development and investment bank

  •   Awareness campaigns for behavioural change
  •   Economic incentives to build green roofs
  •   Water sensitive urban and building design
  •   Green spaces in urban areas

Lisbon

Combining private investment and   an EIB loan to cope with water scarcity in Lisbon

         

Direct private financing and a loan

Business case and European   Investment Bank (EIB) loan process

  •   Leakage detection system
  •   Adjustment of water infrastructure to reduce water leakage
  •   Adaptation of drought and water conservation plans
  •   Water restrictions and consumption cuts

Bilbao

Public-private partnership for   a new flood proof district in Bilbao

             

Direct funding for implementing   adaptation measures

Public-private partnership   agreement managed by a newly established commission

  •   Opening of a water canal
  •   Elevation of ground level of buildings
  •   Establishment of green open spaces
  •   Provision of stormwater tanks

Ghent

Ghent crowdfunding platform realising climate change   adaptation projects

            

Direct funding   and subsidy for adaptation measures

Public-private   partnership managed by a newly established commission

  •   Urban farming
  •   Green garden facades

Amsterdam

Vrijburcht: a privately funded climate–proof collective   garden in Amsterdam

             

Direct funding and a loan

Collective private   commissioning managed by a foundation

  •   Climate–proof collective garden
  •   Rainwater storage tanks
  •   Water sensitive urban and building design

 

Smolyan

European funds for flood protection measures in Smolyan

    

Direct funding and co-funding   for adaptation-related measures

EU ERDF   funding mechanism

  •   expansion and cleaning of the riverbed
  •   reconstruction and upgrading of the existing flood protection walls
  •   construction of new flood protection walls

Paris

Climate Bond financing adaptation actions in Paris

            

Financing of   adaptation measures via an investment instrument with returns (climate bond)

Climate bond   managed by independent financial institutions; implementation of business   case

  •   Green spaces in urban areas
  •   Planting 20,000 trees
  •   Establishing 30 hectares of new parks by 2020

Malmö

Mix of public and private funding to adapt Malmö’s new   harbour district

            

    

Direct financeing   of adaptation measures

Stakeholder   partnership; national and EU funding mechanisms

  •   Green roofs
  •   Green Spaces
  •   Stormwater management measures

 

Bologna

GAIA- Green Area Inner-city Agreement to finance tree   planting in Bologna

            

Direct funding   of measure that offset greenhouse gas emissions and, as a co-benefit, serve   adaptation

GHG emissions   compensation scheme, EU LIFE funding mechanism

  •   Green spaces in urban areas
  •   Tree planting

Bratislava

Using EEA grants for implementing climate adaptation   measures in the city of Bratislava

               

Direct funding and co-funding   for adaptation measures, subsidy for small projects

EEA and Norway grants mechanism,

small project grant scheme

  •   Increase of green infrastructure
  •   Tree planting
  •   Green roofs
  •   Rainwater retention facilities

Copenhagen

The economics of managing heavy   rains and stormwater in Copenhagen

               

Direct funding

Water charges managed through   municipal budget and private investments

  •   Stormwater runoff management measures
  •   Detention areas to store large volume of waters
  •    

Table 1: Overview on the case studies of financing urban adaptation

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Financial incentive programme enabling Hamburg’s Green Roof Strategy

    

Source: Treibhaus Landschaftsarchitektur and Mathias   Friedel

Name

City of   Hamburg

 

Country

Germany

 

Inhabitants

1.7   Mil. (2014)

 

Climate Impact(s)

         

    

 

 

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Awareness campaigns for behavioural change
  •   Economic incentives to build green roofs
  •   Water sensitive urban and building design

Green spaces in urban areas

Financing source(s)

        National,   regional and local budgets

         Private investors

        Supporting regulations

 

 

Financing type(s)

Subsidy for   implementation of green roofs

 

Financing mechanism(s)

A fund managed   by local development and investment bank

 

Summary Description:

In response to   climate change, one of Hamburg’s objectives is to become greener, in the city   and on top. The goal is to plant a total of 100 hectares of green roof   surface in the metropolitan area in the next decade. The green roof measure   was assessed to be economically more feasible than extending sewage   infrastructure to cope with the expected amount of stormwater in the future.

The   Ministry for Environment and Energy will be providing financial support for   the creation of green roofs to the sum of three million euros until the end   of 2019. Two third of the funding is by the Ministry and one third is by the   Senate Office. All funding applications and transactions are handled by the   Hamburg investment and development bank (IFB). The approach taken is that   financial incentives are available to those that voluntarily decide for a   green roof before 2020. After that date Hamburg plans to have green roofs be   compulsory by law. In particular, until 2020 building owners can receive   non-refundable subsidies to cover up to 30-60 percent of production costs for   the greening.

 

Main Challenge for implementation:

A particular   challenge was communication regarding the benefits of green roofs. The   promotion of the benefits regarding water retention during heavy storm events   was one hurdle. Another aspect was addressing possible “negative” effects of   green roofs attracting animals. On one of the industry flat roofs a sea gull   colony of >5000 individuals have found home, putting off other businesses   to also install green roofs. Similarly, green roofs attract insects, which   may result in people deciding to not choose for a green roof. Through strong   communication, stakeholders were able to see how the benefits outweigh the   potential negative aspects.

 

Main success factor for implementation:

Promotion and   communication of the Green Roof Strategy are a top priority and several   hurdles have to be taken. The Federal government supported the Strategy as   pilot programme within a larger, federal programme, providing financial   support, networking and transfer of knowledge.

 

Contact

Ministry for Environment   and Energy, Leitstelle Klimaschutz

E-Mail:   LeitstelleKlimaschutz@bue.hamburg.de

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Combining private investment and an EIB loan to cope with water scarcity in Lisbon

    

Source: EPAL

Name

Lisbon

Country

Portugal

Inhabitants

509,312   (2015)

Climate Impact(s)

         

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Leakage detection system
  •   Adjustment of water infrastructure to reduce water leakage
  •   Adaptation of drought and water conservation plans
  •   Water restrictions and consumption cuts

Financing source(s)

                Private   investors      Financial institution

 

Financing type(s)

Direct private   financing and a loan

Financing mechanism(s)

Business case and European   Investment Bank (EIB) loan process

Summary Description:

In   the city of Lisbon a way to reduce the volume of water lost due to leakages (also   known as non-revenue water) was found. The main source of this problem is   linked to faults in the pipelines due to the aging of the infrastructure. To   address the water leakages, Lisbon’s water company EPAL decided to develop   the monitoring program WONE through which water leakages could be identified   more quickly and located more precisely. It used its own budget.  The monitoring system allows the comparison   of expected water usage data to real-time water usage using a tailor-made   software. When a discrepancy is found, it alerts the monitoring team that   there is a potential leak in the system, who then identify the leak by   tracing back the water meter that provided the data. After the location of   the leak is identified, ‘leak detection mechanics’, are sent out to carry out   a field-based leak detection and repair the problem.

To   finance the costs of the renewal of the infrastructure, EPAL has received   loans of almost €2,500,000,000 from the EIB at favorable interest rates since   1993. Their support was used to finance water supply extensions and upgrades,   waste management measures, sanitation networks and efficiency improvements.   The program has resulted today in a reduction of non-revenue water from 23,5%   in 2005 to around 8,5% in 2015.

Main Challenge for implementation:

It can be   difficult for cities to take the initiative in realizing a water efficiency   program as the role of cities is limited to being a facilitator and customer   of the water company. To carry out a water efficiency program is in the first   place an investment decision that needs to be taken by the water company   itself.

Main success factor for implementation:

Support of the   management board of the company has been proven to be an important success   factor, as well as the involvement of other key areas of the company, namely   network operations, maintenance and customer relations.

The extreme   drought in 2005 led to a higher awareness of the risks involved in droughts.

EPAL   and EIB have built a long trusted relationship. The provision of annual   progress reports about new concepts and methodologies by EPAL to the EIB, as   well as updates on the related international and national programmes build   trust.

Contact:

EPAL Portugal

Email: info@adp.pt

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

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Public-private partnership for a new flood proof district in Bilbao

    

Source: Comisión Gestora de Zorrotzaurre

Name

Bilbao

Country

Spain

Inhabitants

346,574   (2015)

Climate Impact(s)

       and See   level rise

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Opening of a water canal
  •   Elevation of ground level of buildings
  •   Establishment of green open spaces
  •   Provision of stormwater tanks

Financing source(s)

        Municipality   budget, regional budget

       

Private   investors

Financing type(s)

Direct funding for implementing   adaptation measures

Financing mechanism(s)

Public-private   partnership managed by a newly established commission

Summary Description:

In   2012, the Bilbao City approved a plan for the redevelopment of the Zorrotzaurre   area from industrial to residential. The main stakeholders of the   redevelopment project, the land owners of Zorrotzaurre, created a   public-private partnership and the Management Commission of Zorrotzaurre to   advance the project. The current members of the commission own 65% of the   land in Zorrotzaurre; these are: The Regional Basque Government, Bilbao City   Council, the Port Authority of Bilbao, and private entities. The commission   supervises the redevelopment plan of Zorrotzaurre and the members pay for all   the expenses of the project and contribute financially relative to the share   of land they own. The costs for opening the Deusto canal are budgeted at   €20.9 million and the City Council takes up this spending as they reached an   agreement with the Basque government that the Basque country in turn will   finance the costs of one of the new bridges. The municipality will also pay €5,1   million for the flood protection barrier, including the structural   rehabilitation of the river bank and the storm water tanks (€4,74 million),   as agreed between the municipality and the Management Commission of   Zorrotzaurre. The costs for the ground level elevation and public green   spaces (as well as the other redevelopment costs) are paid by the   public-private partnership.

Main Challenge for implementation: The redevelopment   is a complex project which was also affected by the economic crisis.   Therefore, instead of carrying out the entire project at once, it was divided   into phased development.

Main success factor for implementation: one of the   greatest assets to the project is the involvement of a great number of land   owners of all sizes gathered in the public-private partnership.

Contact

Comisión Gestora de   Zorrotzaurre

E-mail:

info@zorrotzaurre.com

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

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Ghent crowdfunding platform realising climate change adaptation projects

    

Source: Annamarie Rizzello

Name

Ghent

Country

Belgium

Inhabitants

251,984   (2014)

Climate Impact(s)

    

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Urban farming
  •   Green garden facades

Financing source(s)

       

Private   investors

       

Municipality   budget

Financing type(s)

Direct funding   and subsidy for adaptation measures

Financing mechanism(s)

Crowdfunding   platform and fund for subsidies

Summary   Description: Ghent has developed a   crowdfunding platform that allows citizens to propose and finance their ideas   for the city. Today, two projects addressing climate adaptation have been   successfully realized with support of the ‘crowdfunding.gent’ platform: 1) urban   farming for residents of a social housing quarter, 2) edible streets by   covering the facades along the streets with planters.  Any citizen of Ghent or person with an idea   located in Ghent can submit a project. He/she needs to provide a short   description and a funding goal for the project. The project becomes visible   on the platform once it is approved by the platform manager, who is appointed   by the city. He checks whether the project proposal meets a set of   pre-defined requirements. People who provide financial backing to a project   are known as ‘supporters’. Their minimum donation is €5. The donated amount   per idea is viewed as an indicator of community support; only the projects   with sufficient community support will become financially viable. ‘Crowdfunding.gent’   additionally offers initiators the opportunity to apply for a municipal   subsidy of the project. The city has provided a total fund of €55.000 per   year specifically assigned to the crowdfunding platform. Per project the   maximum amount of municipal subsidy that can be obtained is €5.000. The   request for municipal funding needs to be indicated in the original   application form. Initiators can choose to apply for 25, 50 or 75% of   municipal funding. To be eligible for this subsidy, the pre-defined amount of   co-funding first needs to be raised.

Main Challenge for implementation: The use of crowdfunding as a policy   instrument implies acceptance of the fact that the exact outcome cannot be   controlled.

Main success factor for implementation: The appointment of   a policy officer to manage the platform and support from an existing   crowdfunding platform developer.

Contact

Policy   Participation office, City of Ghent

E-mail:

info@crowdfunding.gent

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

https://goo.gl/djcBXy

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Vrijburcht: a privately funded climate–proof collective garden in Amsterdam

    

Source: DigiDaan, Amsterdam

Name

Vrijburcht   quarter in Amsterdam

Country

The   Netherlands

Inhabitants

838,338   (2016)

Climate Impact(s)

              

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Climate–proof collective garden
  •   Rainwater storage tanks
  •   Water sensitive urban and building design

Financing source(s)

       

Private   investors

       

Financial   institution

Financing type(s)

Direct funding   and a loan

Financing mechanism(s)

Collective   private commissioning managed by a foundation

Summary Description:

The   Vrijburcht complex was initiated in 2000 by a group of people around an   architect, all living in the center of Amsterdam.   They saw the possibility to create their own new housing including working   spaces and a theatre.   The   heart of the complex is the courtyard garden with trees, a vegetable garden,   lawns, flowers, benches and a greenhouse. The garden offers residents a cool   environment during warmer summers; rain water is stored in underground tanks   for irrigation in dry periods; the unsealed area permits maximum rainwater   permeability.

The   project is a collective private commissioning (CPC) initiative. This means   that future residents jointly developed the project, including carrying the   risks involved in the pre-financing. Future residents organized themselves in   a foundation (Vrijburcht Foundation). This organisational set-up has the   benefit that it gives much freedom to the future residents to realize their   wish, but also asks for strong commitment to the process. All costs,   including for the garden and rainwater storage facility(72,500 EUR) and the   maintenance of the garden (annually 3000 EUR), are carried by the Vrijburcht   Foundation on behalf of the (future) residents. There was no subsidy   involved. Instead Vrijburcht Foundation arranged with Rabobank the option of   a personal loan at favorable interest rate and arranged procedures for a   special mortgage construction of Amsterdam for people with an average regular   income (the so-called ‘Amsterdamse Midden Hypotheek’). Also the social   housing corporation ‘De Key’ provided financial warranty and know-how in   return of inclusion of subsidised rental of housing for assisted living for   six young people with a light impairment and their attendants in the project.

Main Challenge for   implementation: Initial difficulties to attract enough   participants.

Main success factor for implementation: The building   construction/development process was a collective process with the common   wish for a building that was sustainable in both social and climate context. The   foundation consisted of people that invested a lot of time and effort in the   process. The social housing corporation provided financial warranty.

Contact

Beheerstichting Vrijburcht

E-mail: info@vrijburcht.com

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European funds for flood protection measures in Smolyan

    

Source: Municipality of Smolyan

Name

Smolyan

Country

Bulgaria

Inhabitants

121,572   (2011)

Climate Impact(s)

    

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   expansion and cleaning of the riverbed
  •   reconstruction and upgrading of the existing flood protection walls
  •   construction of new flood protection walls

Financing source(s)

         

EU funds and   local government funds

Financing type(s)

Direct funding   and co-funding of adaptation-related measures

Financing mechanism(s)

EU ERDF   funding mechanism

Summary Description: In response to flooding   causing damage in Smolyan’s Ustovo neighbourhood in 2005, the city   implemented a number of flood protection measures that presumably have   already paid off already during the wet year of 2014. Under the project,   river banks were widened, existing protection walls were reinforced and new   walls constructed. The costs of the flood protection measures combined amounted   to €477.259 Euro. A small part, 5% of the total sum was provided from the   municipal budget of Smolyan. The majority of funding originated from the EU   through the ERDF Operational Programme “Regional Development 2007 – 2013 ‘Support   For Small-Scale Measures To Prevent Flooding In Urban Agglomerations’. Municipal experts took care of the application. The project proposal was submitted to the   ministry of regional development - managing authority of this programme. When   the project was granted, a contract was drafted between the ministry and the   municipality of Smolyan. In the next phase, an open contracting procedure was   started for the construction works. The construction company answered   directly to the municipality, who in turn reported to the ministry.

Main Challenge for implementation:  Illegal buildings on the construction site, like barns and gardens,   that had to be demolished before work could start.

Main success factor for implementation: Municipal experts had access to all the   information required for the project, including preliminary studies and   technical designs. Land on which the measures are being implemented is owned   by the municipality and that it was easy to obtain building permits.

Contact

Economic Development, Tourism,   International Programmes and Projects Directorate

E-mail: smol@abv.bg

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

https://goo.gl/FDQuvH

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Climate Bond financing adaptation actions in Paris

    

Source: ©Marie Gantois, City of Paris

Name

Paris

Country

France

Inhabitants

2,240,000   (2012)

Climate Impact(s)

         

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Green spaces in urban areas
  •   Planting 20,000 trees
  •   Establishing 30 hectares of new parks by 2020

Financing source(s)

       

Private   investors

       

Municipality   budget

Financing type(s)

Financing of   adaptation measures via an investment instrument with returns (climate bond)

Financing mechanism(s)

Climate bond managed   by independent financial institutions; implementation of business case

Summary Description: The Paris Climate bond was issued in November   2015 to finance projects in climate mitigation and adaptation. The total size   of the bond is €300 million, with a running time until May 2031. The Bond   aims at private investors who consider it as a secondary advantage to invest   in the sustainability of the city of Paris. They will receive a profit rate   of 1.75% per year. Transparency is ensured by annual reporting, where the   issuer has to justify the allocation of money to projects complying with the   set criteria. The process and report is reviewed by the non-financial rating   agency Vigeo, thereby providing investors reassurance on the use of their   funds. Two banks were selected   through competitive tendering to accompany the City of Paris in the process   and to be partners. The City of Paris benefitted from their expertise on   investor expectations, their network and marketing services. The selection of projects to be   included in the Bond is managed by the Finance Management Support Service   (SGF) of the city in full collaboration with the Urban Ecology Agency (AEU)   and overseen by Vigeo. The selection process consists of two steps according   to criteria that are a combination of criteria brought forward by SGF and   criteria which are usually used for socially responsible investments (SRI).20%   of the bond funds have been assigned to adaptation projects. Currently, two   projects with a climate adaptation objective and are being implemented:   planting 20,000 trees in the city and creating 30 hectares of new parks by   2020.

Main Challenge for implementation: ideally the local authority needs expertise   on the green market and knowledge of what is expected or valued by investors.

Main success factor for implementation: The participation of independent advisors,   sectoral experts in Green bonds and bankers, as well as independent financial   rating agency.

Contact

Climate, energy and circular   economy department

Email: planclimatdeparis@paris.fr 

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

https://goo.gl/OmX3mp

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Mix of private and public funding to adapt Malmö’s new harbour district


 

    

Source: City of Malmö, Eva Klamméus

Name

Malmö

Country

Sweden

Inhabitants

302,835   (2011)

Climate Impact(s)

              

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Green roofs
  •   Green areas
  •   Stormwater management measures

 

Financing source(s)

       

Private   investors

       

National and   EU funds

Financing type(s)

Direct financing   of adaptation measures

Financing mechanism(s)

Stakeholder   partnership; national and EU funding mechanisms

Summary Description:  The   city of Malmö aims to realise climate adaptation measures by integrating them   directly in the design of urban development projects, such as in the case of   the Western Harbour area. The private funding to realise these measures is   provided by developers, who realise the actual construction of the projects.   They engage in a stakeholder partnership process initiated by the city to   ensure that the final realisation of the urban development reflects Malmö’s   sustainable vision. Each developer attached to the development area of   Western Harbour as either a land owner or buyer was requested to participate   in the stakeholder partnership. A stakeholder partnership process generally   consists of a series of meetings and workshops for which the city provides   the topics depending on the envisioned sustainability goals. The initial   phase included the design of a quality program, which consisted of a set of   strict sustainability guidelines co-developed in ‘creative dialogue’ with the   area developers. The city initiated the process, but this involvement   decreases over time as the stakeholders take over the initiative. In case a   higher level of environmental standards needs to be achieved, the city can   initiate an application for additional public funding. Both national and   European funding was used in the Western Harbour development. The costs to   the municipality are limited to the work time spent by policy officers   managing the process and the provision of resources to facilitate meetings   and workshops.

Main Challenge for implementation: In some cases initially the developers were found to   have difficulties trusting each other since they are usually competitors.

Main success factor for implementation: The most essential factors is trust between the   partners and time needs to be taken to build it.

Contact

Department of   Environment

E-mail: malmostad@malmo.se

 

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

https://goo.gl/l95XYz

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GAIA- Green Area Inner-city Agreement to finance tree planting in Bologna

    

Source: city of Bolgna

Name

Bologna

Country

Italy

Inhabitants

386,633   (2015)

Climate Impact(s)

    

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Green spaces in urban areas
  •   Tree planting

Financing source(s)

       

Private   investors

       

EU and   municipal funds

Financing type(s)

Direct funding   of measure that offset greenhouse gas emissions and, as a co-benefit, serve   adaptation

Financing mechanism(s)

GHG emissions   compensation scheme, EU LIFE funding mechanism

Summary   Description: The Bologna Adaptation   Plan to Climate Change focuses on the development of innovative, concrete   adaptation measures. These measures were developed as part of the LIFE+   project BLUE AP). One of the successful initiatives from this project is the   “green areas inner-city agreement” (GAIA). GAIA was based on a public-private   partnership model to finance tree planting. The mechanism is based on the   idea to use financial compensation for the carbon footprint of businesses as   a main driver for action. The financial compensation is used to purchase,   plant and maintain trees throughout the city providing adaptation benefits.   Participation of the town council and local businesses in the GAIA initiative   is on a voluntary basis. An easy-to-use form on the project website allows   businesses to calculate the quantity of CO2 involved in their processes and   services. The business can select one of 3 types of partnerships they would   like to purchase to neutralize their carbon footprint ranging from minimum   200 EUR to 4200 EUR or more. The city of Bologna has developed clear   guidelines that detail the different steps that need to be taken in the   process and which party is responsible. The city identifies the cost   components, approves the Protocol of Agreement, takes the initiative to start   the planting works and pays the tree suppliers. The city also commits to   providing a monitoring report every 6 months from the start of the   partnership. A guideline has been developed with the project detailing these   steps involved to aid other municipalities or authorities that want to   implement the partnership in their own city.

Main Challenge for implementation:   Three orders of problems had to be solved,   which regarded the identification of spaces for tree planting within the   densely built up urban area, the definition of legal terms for the public   private partnership to be established between private enterprises and the   public authority and the identification of suitable tree species which need   to be sufficiently resilient with respect to future climate conditions   (avoiding irrigation requirements and resisting to high and low temperatures)   and having a low allergenic potential. The latter was tackled by a scientific   research developed by one of the project partners and led to new   recommendations for the choice of plant species introduced into the municipal   byelaw for urban green areas.  

Main success factor for implementation: Voluntary interest by companies to compensate their   CO2 emissions

Contact

Environment and   Energy Department

E-mail:

AmbienteComune@comune.bologna.it

Link

https://goo.gl/i6W05Z

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Using EEA grants for implementing climate adaptation measures in the city of Bratislava

    

Source: Nové Mesto, Bratislava City

Name

Bratislava

Country

Slovakia

Inhabitants

419,678 (2015)

Climate Impact(s)

              

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Increase of green infrastructure
  •   Tree planting
  •   Green roofs
  •   Rainwater retention facilities to reduce run-off and for irrigation   purposes
  •   Sustainable drainage systems

Financing source(s)

        EEA and   Norway grants and municipal funds

        Private   investors

Financing type(s)

Direct funding and co-funding   for adaptation measures, subsidy for small projects

Financing mechanism(s)

EEA and Norway grants mechanism,   small project grant scheme

Summary Description: The City of   Bratislava has prepared and approved a strategy on adaptation to climate   change and is currently preparing an Adaptation Action Plan, which identifies   the adaptation measures for the city (with special focus on heat and   rainwater management) and cooperation among decision-makers, planners, the   private sector and local communities. To finance the implementation of the   planned measures Bratislava city successfully applied for ‘EEA Grants and   Norway Grants’. In total € 2,411,445 funding was granted by EEA Grants and   the remaining € 926,195 is provided by the Bratislava City office and City   Districts and funds the implementation of such measures as rehabilitation and   creation of new parks, squares and streets, increasing green cover and water   retention capacities, as well implementation of a green roof. The project also   includes a small projects grant scheme for support of sustainable drainage   systems. A total amount of € 50,000 will be made available for small projects   up to maximum € 1,000 per project. Eligible applicants are private home   owners, NGOs and businesses. The grant covers a maximum of 50% of total costs   and is expected that these will be used for water reservoirs, rainwater   gardens, small green roofs, adjustment of pavements, use of permeable   materials, etc. the grant scheme comes with consultancy for applicants and   dissemination activities.

Main Challenge for implementation: Complex procedures for the implementation of   measures in terms of permits and obligations for public works, time consuming   public procurement procedures, and archaeological aspects that have to be   taken into account in a historical city.

Main success factor for implementation: The city’s participation in the ‘EU cities adapt’   project of the European Commission 2012-2013 created the necessary awareness   and basic information. Following this, Bratislava had carried out a risk   assessment and adopted adaptation strategy. That served as a key success   factor for obtaining the EEA grant.

Contact

Office of the Chief City Architect

E-mail: architekt@bratislava.sk

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

https://goo.gl/mz6jSV

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The economics of managing heavy rains and stormwater in Copenhagen

    

Source: EVM   Landskab

Name

Copenhagen

Country

Denmark

Inhabitants

591.481. (2016)

Climate Impact(s)

           

    

Adaptation measures financed

  •   Stormwater runoff management measures
  •   Detention areas to store large volume of waters
    •    

Financing source(s)

       

Private

investors

       

Municipality   budget

 

       

Supporting   regulations

 

Financing type(s)

Direct funding  

Financing mechanism(s)

Water charges managed through   municipal budget and private investments

Summary Description: Following a disastrous flood in 2011, the   city developed a Cloudburst Management Plan to reduce the impacts of pluvial   flooding due to heavy rains, which are expected to increase in frequency as a   result of climate change. The plan builds on a detailed socio-economic   assessment to ascertain which combination of cloudburst and stormwater   measures can pay off for society as a whole. It has shown that continuing to   focus on traditional sewage systems would result in a negative societal gain.   Solutions that combine grey and green measures such as retention areas and   natural drainage would result in a net saving.

The Cloudburst Management Plan   operates with a minimum time frame of 20 years, requiring a prioritisation of   individual projects in line with the Copenhagen Climate Adaptation Plan.  300 interlinked projects are planned and   partially already implemented. It is estimated that around 15 projects a year   will be carried out in the next 20-30 years.

The total costs (around 1.5   billion EURO) incurred by the City of Copenhagen, Capital Area Supply Company   (HOFOR) and private landowners will be shared. The part of the combined   solutions concerned with managing water is financed through the water charges.   If the implementation of the cloudburst and stormwater management is   coordinated with other construction projects in the city money can be saved.   The combined solution additionally necessitates private individuals to invest   in anti-flood backflow valves etc. and local drainage of stormwater. 

Main Challenge for implementation:

The prioritisation of the   projects emphasizes large-scale projects, which will require cooperation   between municipalities and also private land owners.

Main success factor for implementation:

The economic assessment that shows that the costs   of damage to Copenhagen if nothing is done to adapt the current runoff and   sewage system are higher compared to adaptation options is a strong argument.   In particular green infrastructure measures make the city safer and nicer and   attract people and businesses. An amendment of the Danish water sector act in   2012 clarified that water companies can invest in adaptation and use water   charges.

Contact

Jan Rasmussen
  The City of Copenhagen
  Technical and Environmental Administration
  E-mail: jrasmu@tmf.kk.dk

Long version on Climate-ADAPT:

https://goo.gl/vvQIzu

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