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Alien species are mainly introduced to freshwaters via aquaculture followed by releases and escapes of pet/aquarium species. Furthermore, introductions through inland canals or shipping (e.g. with ballast water) and fisheries/angling are also quite widespread but make up a lower share of alien species introductions (Nunes, et al., 2015). Climate change is obviously an additional reason, e.g. if temperature increases, currently natural thermal barriers which normally limit the establishment of IAS will become more suitable for alien species. This will potentially lead to a geographical redistribution of species and create alien invasive aquatic communities (IUCN, 2017).   

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