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Despite some remarkable progress made in connecting the population to public water supply systems in all six countries, treatment of waste water still remains insufficient. For instance, in Armenia there is hardly any biological treatment of waste water to break down the organic waste. In Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, only half of the collected water is treated. In Georgia only a few of the municipal waste water treatment plants built in the 1980s operate. Organic pollution generated in cities is transmitted directly to the rivers. In Moldova most treatment plants operate with primary treatment only, so organic waste is not processed. In addition, poorly treated industrial waste water affects the performance of municipal treatment plants, and much untreated industrial waste water is discharged directly into rivers. In Ukraine the urban treatment plants have insufficient capacity and are in poor technical condition, while there is a general lack of sewage networks in rural areas. However, in the region there are new investments ongoing for improving the treated water discharge to the environment.

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