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In Armenia, river nitrate concentrations increased by an average of 18 % between 2008-2017 (Figure 22). However, the increase was associated with sites downstream of settlements. Above settlements there was a slight decrease in nitrate concentrations. In contrast, there were similar levels of increased phosphate concentrations. The increase was about the same upstream and downstream of settlements for river phosphate concentration. Overall, the nitrate concentrations increased by 33 % between 2009-2017.  This increase is much larger compared to 2008, but concentrations were particularly low that year. Increasing nitrate concentrations are the result of increased emissions from wastewater and agriculture. The River Hrazdan is one of the longest and most polluted rivers in Armenia and has very high phosphate concentrations, particularly at the nearest site downstream of Yerevan City. Removing this site from the overall average reduces the national phosphate concentration markedly. No such effect is seen for nitrate, indicating that waste water is the major contributor at this site.

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