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As already noted, national funding also plays a significant role in funding WFD measures. The first RBMPs were in many countries an opportunity to set up coordinated programmes to fund hydromorphological measures, which have been among measures requested for the first time explicitly by the WFD. Examples of such national programmes which fund hydromorphological measures include the following:

  • In Scotland, a ‘Water Environment Fund’ was set up to improve the physical condition of water bodies to meet WFD objectives (Box 7).
  • In Finland, a National Fish Pass Strategy was adopted in 2012 to steer the construction of fish passages during the first three periods of water management planning until the end of the 2020 (Vehanen et al, 2015).
  • In Ireland, an Environmental River Enhancement Programme was developed between 2008-2012 dealing in part with river morphology enhancement (O Grady et al., 2013).
  • In Germany, a connectivity programme for barriers at federal waterways, several federal states programmes and the Blue Ribbon Programme were adopted. The latter (see 4.3), started in 2017, shall run until 2050 with a budget of 50 million €/a for the restoration of rivers and their embankments and another 12-15 million €/a for the restoration of floodplains.[1] [1],

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