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Chapter 3 outlines a framework for assessing freshwater vulnerability and the resilience of ecosystem services – unpacking the terminology and background science and exploring through examples why they are important. The approach of combining hazards and vulnerabilities in risk management is extended by considering concepts of ecological resilience and vulnerability.

Chapter 4 focuses on the pressures, state and outlook of Europe’s freshwater, especially regarding actual situation and changes in floods and droughts. Sustainable water resource management requires knowledge in the form of robust data and indicators that can show the links between water management, social and economic benefits, and ecosystems services. In this chapter, the advanced water exploitation index, the so-called WEI+, is presented.

In chapter 5 the economic, social and ecologic impacts of floods and water scarcity and droughts are discussed. It deals with demand and supply-side management strategies and gives some potential categories of measures for sustainable water quantity management.

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