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In these cases, different options must be evaluated for their potential environmental, economic and social impacts. In some areas, desalination plants have been built or are being planned. Particularly in coastal communities where water resources are often limited and groundwater is being affected by salt water intrusion and sea-level rise, this can offer a viable source of freshwater. Drawbacks include the cost of the technology, running costs, high energy consumption and the generation of brine with resulting environmental problems. In southern European countries, but also in some large urban centres such as London, desalination plants have been included in plans to adapt to growing water demand and reduced supply of water resources. (to be further expanded with examples)

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