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The highest costs are usually associated with structural measures and technical flood protection measures. However, more cost efficient measures can often be achieved through a combination of structural and non-structural measures such as spatial planning, behavioural adaptation and catchment management. A distinction that should be made here is the difference in between effective and efficient flood measures. Effectiveness is a result-based term and describes the degree of goal achievement in terms of risk reduction or effects towards risk reduction. Efficiency is a yield-based term and describes how economically an intended risk reduction or an effect towards risk reduction has been achieved. The term “economically” relates to the expenditure of both time and effort (CRUE et al. 2009).

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