3. Coping with key challenges for urban rivers and lakes

For the purpose of this report, the major challenges that urban rivers and lakes in European cities face are grouped into:

  • Water availability and supply challenges
  • Water quality issues
  • Structural changes, related among others also to flood risk management.

For each of these major challenges, the following sections provide a brief review of the issues at stake, document the key approaches followed to deal with the issues and give case study illustrations.

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