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Another persistent problem of concern to citizens is chemical pollution of river and lake sediments in cities. For instance, the constant need for dredging sediment in the River Elbe and the harbour of Hamburg to allow inland water transport has, next to concerns about the impact of the hydrological changes to the ecosystem, faced the city authorities with the problem of how to dispose of polluted sediments (Leal et al., 2006). Another example is sediment pollution of Lake Rummelsburg, an oxbow lake of the river Spree, in a densely populated area of Berlin. The high contamination of the lake sediments with chemicals due to industrial activity on the river banks in the early 20th century is made responsible for the low biological diversity of the lake. Nowadays, the area around the lake progressively develops to a residential area and is popular for local recreation use. Recent remediation measures by the city authorities, such as partial sludge removal, have not improved the ecological situation significantly so far (Dumm et al., 2015; Reifferscheid et al., 2013). The city of Stockholm is also taking measures to deal with sediment pollution in its lakes, e.g. of Lake Trekanten which is a popular recreational spot close to central Stockholm.

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