Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013

REPORT COVERAGE

Austria
12 Aug 2013, 14:46
floriott

REPORT DETAILS

ZEHNTER UMWELTKONTROLLBERICHT - Umweltsituation in Österreich - Bericht des Umweltministers an den Nationalrat Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013
German
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Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013
Environment Agency Austria

FORMAT & ACCESSIBILITY

report (static source)
2013
3 years
284

AUDIENCE & CONTEXT

Policy makers (national level)
Pursuant to §§ 3 and 17(3) of the Austrian Environmental Control Act
Data coverage: Jannuary 1st 2010 until December 31th 2012 (unless stated otherwise) Citation: Umweltbundesamt (2013): Zehnter Umweltkontrollbericht. Umweltsituation in Österreich. Reports, Bd. REP-0410. Umweltbundesamt, Wien.

STRUCTURE

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How are indicators used Primarily (>50%) Ocasionally (<50%) None
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Implicitly

TOPICS COVERED

Focus Indicators
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Some
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Air pollution - - - - - -
Biodiversity - - - - - -
Chemicals - - - - - -
Climate change - - - - - -
Environment and health - - - - - -
Land use - - - - - -
Natural resources - - - - - -
Noise - - - - - -
Soil - - - - - -
Waste and material resources - - - - - -
Water - - - - - -
Various other issues - - - - - -
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
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Agriculture - - - - - -
Energy - - - - - -
Fisheries - - - - - - -
Household consumption - - - - - -
Industry - - - - - -
Green economy - - - - - -
Tourism - - - - - -
Transport - - - - - -
Forestry
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Environmental technology - - - - - -
Policy instruments - - - - - -
Environmental scenarios - - - - - -
Sustainable Development
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Coast and seas - - - - - - -
Specific regions - - - - - -
Urban environment - - - - - -

Short description from SERIS (old):

Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 THE STATE OF ENV THE STATE OF ENVTHE STATE OF THE ENVTHE STATE OF THE ENV THE STATE OF ENV THE STATE OF ENV IRONMENT IRONMENT IN A NUTSHELL IN A NUTSHELLIN A NUTSHELL IN A NUTSHELL IN A NUTSHELLIN A NUTSHELL Chapter: 1 WATER AND WATER MANAGEMENT The successes achieved in the prevention of water pollution are due to waste water treatment. For running waters a need for action was identified, in particu-lar as far as the structure of water bodies and the hydrology are concerned. Remediation priorities up to 2015 include measures for the removal of barriers to fish migration and to improve the structures of water bodies, e.g. by restoring them to their natural state. An expansion of hydroelectric power generation is not entirely compatible with the ecological targets and should take into account the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. Nitrate and pesticide inputs from diffuse sources continue to cause regional problems with groundwater quality. Measures under the EU Regulation on sup-port for rural development (rural development 14-20) should increasingly be de-signed in such a way that they comply with the requirements of (drinking) water protection and the prevention of water pollution so that they can help, along with the compulsory ‘nitrate action programme’ and through voluntary participation in the so-called ÖPUL programme1, maintain or achieve the good status of groundwater bodies. With regard to water resource management the European Commission has, in blueprint analysis, identified a need for action for a more efficient use of water resources. Here the prerequisite is to have knowledge of and relevant data on water abstractions and water discharges. 2 AIR Important successes have been achieved in air quality management, but there is still much to be done. Particulate matter and nitrogen oxides put much more strain on the health of the Austrian population than is allowed under European Union regulations. Depending on where one lives, particulate matter alone can reduce one’s average life expectancy by several months. The measures implemented up to now have not been sufficient to guarantee that compliance with the limit values in Austria can be achieved within the pre-scribed period or in the future. In 2010 nitrogen oxide levels were about 40 % above the admissible levels specified in the Austrian Emission Ceilings Act - Air. The admissible levels of the European Air Quality Directive for particulate mat-ter were exceeded in seven of the nine Austrian federal provinces in 2011. The Environment Agency Austria proposes the development of a harmonised and legally binding national air quality scheme with clearly defined time frames 1 Austrian agro-environmental programme Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 and responsibilities for the federal government and the provinces to gradually achieve compliance with the limit values. Within the scope of the federal gov-ernment‘s responsibilities are, for example, individual measures in the transport sector as specified in the Austrian Ambient Air Quality Act, while the exchange programme for older domestic combustion sources is within the scope of re-sponsibilities of the federal provinces. 3 SOIL The Austrian sustainability strategy aims to secure the functionality and availa-bility of soils in qualitative and quantitative terms and on a permanent basis. An evaluation of the soil’s functions has up to now taken place only in a few cas-es. As changes in land use mostly lead to the development of larger settlement areas or agglomerations and result in soil carbon losses, about 400 kt CO2 are released every year. Studies have shown that the concentrations of organic pol-lutants are elevated in soils along the northern and south-eastern edges of the Alps. In view of the diverging claims on soil utilisation, a standard evaluation of the soil’s functions has to be carried out to ensure a sustainable use of soils. To en-sure the conservation of soils as a natural resource and to safeguard the soil’s capacity of carbon sequestration, regulatory measures have to be included in spatial planning. For an evaluation of the current pollutant concentrations in soils national soil monitoring is needed, as are national evaluation standards. 4 CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION To mitigate the risks of climate change it is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Austria, within the EU and at the global level. For the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol it was necessary to achieve a 13% reduction of the national emission levels of 1990 in the period 2008-2012. A much larger part than originally planned of this reduction was achieved through the use of flexible instruments (i.e. climate change mitigation efforts abroad funded by Austria). To achieve the 2020 targets, the implementation of further energy efficiency measures and a promotion of the use of renewable energy sources will be ab-solutely necessary. To limit global warming to 2 °C, a transformation into a low-carbon, climate friendlier economy will be necessary. To achieve this, increased efforts are needed and legally binding climate and energy policy targets have to be set in the medium and in the long term. On the whole, Europe has to accept its central role in paving Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 5 CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION To reduce the impacts of climate change on nature, society and the economy, it is necessary to take adaptation measures and to make the most of new oppor-tunities that present themselves. In Austria, the expected average temperature increase by the mid-21st century (compared to 1971-2000) is just under 2 °C and it is assumed that a shift in seasonal precipitation patterns will occur with increased precipitation in the win-ter and decreased precipitation in the summer. This will have the following con-sequences: the adverse effects of heat waves, reduced water quantities in the summer accompanied by an increase in water demand, and changes in the growing seasons. A national strategy on climate change adaptation was adopted by the cabinet assembly on 22 October 2012. The key objective of the strategy is to take into account any potential impacts of climate change in all planning and decision-making processes at all (national and local) levels. The recommendations set out in the Austrian strategy on climate change adaptation should be implement-ed promptly in all relevant areas of action. 6 AGRICULTURE AND FORESTS The aim of future agricultural policy is to increase the targeted promotion of the manifold services that agriculture provides in order to achieve the environmental objectives. The aim is also to use the common strategic framework of different EU funds in order to define development objectives which go beyond sectoral boundaries and to integrate the multi-functional structure of the rural region. The agro-environmental programme’s high level of acceptance has been strengthened and organic farming further developed as a model for eco-friendly agriculture. Up to now it has been possible to keep crops free from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, the objective which is to be achieved - namely national self-determination - has as yet not been incorporated into EU law. Not least because of the adverse effects for ecosystems, which are to be ex-pected from climate change, forest management will have to take into account developments of natural tree species diversity and biodiversity. Ozone exposure and nitrogen inputs are sources of ambient pollution in forest ecosystems, which is why instruments for air quality protection need to be improved. Use of biomass from forestry and agriculture for the production of energy has to be based on comprehensive sustainability criteria. Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 7 BIODIVERSITY AND NATURE CONSERVATION The development of a new biodiversity strategy that complies with EU require-ments and the subsequent implementation of this strategy form the basis for securing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in Austria. In par-ticular, the requirements for the implementation of EU nature conservation legis-lation should be complied with consistently. For the new programming period biodiversity programmes should be included increasingly in the funding pro-grammes. About 16 % of the national territory has been classified as nature reserve or Eu-ropean nature reserve. Management measures are carried out in a large num-ber of nature reserves, along with local promotional activities. Species and habi-tat conservation programmes are also effective outside the protected areas. Despite the large number of measures, many species and habitats are in a pre-carious situation, which will be exacerbated even further by climate change. 8 NOISE The most important target is to prevent and mitigate the harmful effects of envi-ronmental noise on human health, as well as unreasonable annoyance due to exposure to environmental noise. In 2011 four out of ten Austrians stated that they were disturbed by noise within their homes. With strategic noise maps drawn up according to EU environmental noise legis-lation, an important basis for noise abatement and forward-looking planning is available. In 2012 noise maps had to be produced for a larger number of areas than in 2007. Apart from the Vienna region, the cities of Graz, Innsbruck, Linz und Salzburg also had to be mapped. The road network depicted on the maps had doubled, the rail network tripled in size. The strategic noise maps were published online at www.laerminfo.at. In 2013 the competent authorities have to prepare action plans which are based on the strategic noise maps. Apart from noise control with active and passive noise abatement measures, it is also necessary to take the problem of noise consistently into account in spatial planning and to use traffic management in-strumentation. 9 RESOURCE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT The most important target is to increase resource efficiency so as to decouple the environmental impact of material use from economic growth. The resource efficiency of the Austrian economy continues to increase continu-ously. But there are potentials for improvement, especially in construction waste recycling, prevention of food waste, digestion of biogenous wastes and in the recovery of phosphorous and rare metals from a variety of waste streams. Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 In order to further increase resource efficiency and achieve the decoupling of material use from economic performance, resource saving measures need to be continued and improved. As regards recycling, it is important to see to the ef-ficient removal of pollutants, so as to ensure that pollutants are removed from the material cycle. 10 CONTAMINATED SITES In accordance with the guidelines on contaminated site management of 2010 it is planned that the identification of all historically contaminated sites will be completed by 2025, and remediation measures at heavily contaminated sites by 2050. Despite increased efforts in the last few years, it will be necessary to speed up further the identification and remediation of contaminated sites in order to reach the objectives specified in the guidelines. An important requirement to achieve this is a planned new law on Contaminated Sites Management. With this new law and a related ordinance the legal basis for a more rapid iden-tification and remediation of contaminated sites will be created. Specific rules of procedure applicable to the remediation of contaminated sites and specific measures adapted to individual sites will help to speed up the implementation of remediation projects in the future. The introduction of a new category, namely contaminated sites in the strict sense of the word which are to be distinguished from other disused hazardous sites, will increase legal certainty for users of abandoned landfills and former in-dustrial sites and support brownfield redevelopment. 11 CHEMICALS As regards the development of new EU regulations for chemicals, biocides, plant protection products and POPs, the intensive phase has been completed. Apart from providing sufficient information to the people concerned, it is now necessary to establish instruments that allow an evaluation of the effectiveness of these regulations. What is missing in the new Biocidal Products Regulation are substitution plans for hazardous biocides as well as incentives for the de-velopment of alternatives to biocidal active substances. The situation is different with endocrine disrupting chemicals: although it has been known for a long time that some chemicals have a hormonal effect on humans and animals, we continue to be exposed to endocrine disruptors. Solutions to the problem of integrating nanomaterials into relevant legislation are currently being developed. However, there is still a long way to go. Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 12 ENERGY The climate and energy package of the European Union as well as the Austrian energy strategy and the Climate Act 2011 specify that the share of renewable energy sources should be raised to 34% of gross final energy consumption in 2020, that final energy consumption should be stabilised at the level of 2005 (1,100 PJ) and that greenhouse gas emissions in the non-emission trading sec-tor should be reduced by 16% below 2005 levels. The last few years have seen an increase in both the relative and the absolute contribution of renewable energy sources to national consumption. To decouple economic growth from energy consumption, it is absolutely neces-sary to avoid (or reduce) losses and to increase efficiency by adopting a set of suitable measures. The steps which are necessary to achieve this include legal measures, an increase in the price of fossil energy sources, the promotion of renewable energy sources and targeted support for energy efficiency measures. To pave the way towards a de-carbonisation of the energy system in order to comply with the EU Roadmap 2050, legally binding interim targets for 2030 need to be fixed at European and national level for renewable energy consump-tion and greenhouse gas emission ceilings. 13 INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS In order to reach the targets of the climate and energy package, the Austrian Climate Change Act 2011 and the Industrial Emissions and National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NEC), it will be necessary to reduce especially energy con-sumption, along with greenhouse gas emissions, particulate matter, nitrogen ox-ides and mercury in the industry and energy production sectors. Efficient energy conversion and use require, apart from technological innovations, binding ener-gy action plans and a suitable choice of location. These aspects need to be in-tegrated more strongly into permitting procedures. More efficient installations should be used in order to put a halt to growing electricity consumption. The achievement of the targets of the NEC Directive is closely linked to the ad-aptation of installations to state of the art technology. To reduce emissions, eve-rything should be done within the realm of technical possibilities to reduce es-pecially particulate matter and nitrogen oxide levels. Monitoring and reporting, as appropriate, should be made compulsory. Austria imports a large number of goods. The majority of these goods are used in industrial production. An increase of eco-efficiency is necessary to provide a contribution to the protection of the environment and to reduce Austria's de-pendence on imports of material resources. 14 TRANSPORT Ambitious targets have been set for the reduction of energy demand, green-house gas emissions and air pollutants, both at European level and in Austria. Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 Of all sectors, the transport sector has seen the strongest increase in green-house gas emissions since 1990, although a reversal in the overall trend has been observed since 2005. This reversal has been brought about by the use of biofuels, an increase in the efficiency of single vehicles and higher energy pric-es. As regards air pollution, particle and nitrogen oxide emissions continue to cause problems, with transport being by far the largest contributor of nitrogen oxide emissions. To achieve the environmental targets, it is necessary to create an appropriate setting for a trend reversal so that it will become possible to pave the way to-wards a sustainable transport system with reduced emissions. The structural re-forms needed to achieve this have to be designed in such a way that they are compatible economically while also taking social implications into account. Fis-cal measures are effective in the short term and can be implemented quickly, supporting low-emission propulsion and fuel technologies and public transport. To achieve a sustainable reduction of traffic volumes in the long term, binding environmental policy targets have to be integrated into transport and spatial planning, and infrastructure development as well as cost structures in transport have to be designed in such a way that the targets can be achieved. 15 TOURISM Sustainable development of tourism provides a contribution to economic growth and to the achievement of environmental and climate policy targets. There have been successful initiatives for environmentally friendly travelling for more than 20 years. Ecolabelling for tourist facilities and travel offers has be-come a well-established scheme. In 2010 a new Austrian tourism strategy was presented. The most important challenge is to minimise negative environmental effects re-sulting from tourist infrastructures, journeys to and from holiday destinations and from tourist activities. Eco-sensitive mountain regions are increasingly coming under pressure from impacts of climate change and a lack of adaptation measures. National and re-gional subsidies which are of relevance to tourism have to be made dependent on sustainability criteria. Collaboration with all relevant sectors and authorities is necessary, as is a fun-damental approach guided by the principles of sustainable development, and both need to be applied in the different tourist activities. 16 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT According to the Austrian sustainability strategy the increase of additional land being used every day for building and transport purposes is to be reduced to a maximum of 2.5 hectares. The Austrian conference on spatial planning (ÖREK) 2011 recommends that flood retention areas and floodplains, as well as open land or green areas of high natural value, should be kept free of encroachments and that existing hazard zone plans should be incorporated into the law. Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 Between 2009 and 2012 the amount of land being used remained high at 22.4 hectares/day. Measures designed to allocate land for building purposes are pursued in nearly all of the federal provinces. In some of the federal prov-inces, the designation of floodplains and retention areas has already been in-corporated into spatial planning regulations. To reduce land use for human settlement and transport areas, an action plan has to be developed and implemented, with the support of municipalities, feder-al provinces and the government. In order to preserve important ecosystem services, priority sites are to be defined and designated. To ensure efficient risk management of natural disasters, there should be a stronger link between haz-ard zone planning and zoning in the respective legislation. 17 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Human health and well-being are strongly determined by environmental influ-ences. This calls for a strong link between health and environmental policy and for the implementation of a variety of strategies and action plans. Harmful chemicals in products that are available on the market are growing in im-portance due to globalisation. A more rapid implementation of measures is rec-ommended, especially to protect sensitive populations. Consumers are exposed to chemical mixtures via all relevant routes and pathways. Potential risks have not been sufficiently evaluated and are currently not regulated. This is also true for risks associated with indoor air pollution, where priority is given to measures to be implemented in day care centres for children and schools. In some re-gions, increased indoor exposure to the radioactive gas radon has been meas-ured. Simple structural measures could reduce exposure there. With regard to all these issues, suitable information and recommendations for action are help-ful for consumers to reduce any potential effects on human health. 18 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable development is a living process. The aim of giving ecological, social and economic interests equal consideration is to give people a higher quality of life. The absolute boundaries of social development are defined by the Earth's ecological framework, which also sets limits for the economy. The targets stipulated in the EU's and Austria's sustainability strategies, and especially the ecological targets have as yet not been reached, and some of them are far from being reached. One of the reasons for this is indiscriminate economic growth, along with policy measures and their rebound effect. It is therefore necessary that sustainable economic models are developed into which ecological issues and aspects of real life are integrated. An eco-social tax reform should be the first step to achieve this. To measure quality of life and to evaluate socio-political decisions in terms of sustainable development, reporting and evaluation systems need to be estab-lished so that, in addition to the GDP, data on sustainability indicators can be collected, so as to be interpreted and represented collectively and on a regular basis.

Overview of table of contents and indicators in report

Environmental Situation in Austria – 10th State of the Environment Report - 2013 Content (Chapters): 1 WATER AND WATER MANAGEMENT 2 AIR 3 SOIL 4 CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION 5 CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION 6 AGRICULTURE AND FORESTS 7 BIODIVERSITY AND NATURE CONSERVATION 8 NOISE 9 RESOURCE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT 10 CONTAMINATED SITES 11 CHEMICALS 12 ENERGY 13 INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS 14 TRANSPORT 15 TOURISM 16 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT 17 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 18 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- German Fullversion of Content: INHALT LEITFADEN FÜR DEN ZEHNTEN UMWELTKONTROLLBERICHT ....................................................... 7 DAS WICHTIGSTE IN KÜRZE ........................................................ 13 1 WASSER UND WASSERWIRTSCHAFT ...................................... 21 1.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele .......................................................................... 21 1.2 Situation und Trends ............................................................................. 22 1.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ...................................... 28 1.4 Empfehlungen ....................................................................................... 32 1.5 Literatur ................................................................................................. 32 2 LUFT .................................................................................................... 35 2.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele .......................................................................... 35 2.2 Situation und Trends ............................................................................. 36 2.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ...................................... 46 2.4 Empfehlungen ....................................................................................... 50 2.5 Literatur ................................................................................................. 51 3 BODEN ................................................................................................ 55 3.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele .......................................................................... 55 3.2 Situation und Trends ............................................................................. 56 3.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ...................................... 57 3.4 Empfehlungen ....................................................................................... 59 3.5 Literatur ................................................................................................. 60 4 KLIMASCHUTZ .................................................................................. 63 4.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele .......................................................................... 63 4.2 Situation und Trends ............................................................................. 65 4.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ...................................... 72 4.4 Empfehlungen ....................................................................................... 78 4.5 Literatur ................................................................................................. 78 5 KLIMAWANDELANPASSUNG ....................................................... 83 5.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele .......................................................................... 83 5.2 Situation und Trends ............................................................................. 84 5.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ...................................... 89 5.4 Empfehlungen ....................................................................................... 90 5.5 Literatur ................................................................................................. 91 6 LANDWIRTSCHAFT UND WALD .................................................. 95 6.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele .......................................................................... 95 6.2 Situation und Trends ............................................................................. 97 6.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick .................................... 103 6.4 Empfehlungen ..................................................................................... 108 6.5 Literatur ............................................................................................... 109 7 BIOLOGISCHE VIELFALT UND NATURSCHUTZ ....................117 7.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................117 7.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................118 7.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................125 7.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................127 7.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................128 8 LÄRM .................................................................................................131 8.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................131 8.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................131 8.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................135 8.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................136 8.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................137 9 RESSOURCENMANAGEMENT UND ABFALLWIRTSCHAFT ..................................................................139 9.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................139 9.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................140 9.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................145 9.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................147 9.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................147 10 ALTLASTEN .....................................................................................151 10.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................151 10.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................152 10.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................154 10.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................155 10.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................155 11 CHEMIKALIEN .................................................................................157 11.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................157 11.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................158 11.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................160 11.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................161 11.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................162 12 ENERGIE ...........................................................................................165 12.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................165 12.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................166 12.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................179 12.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................183 12.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................184 13 INDUSTRIELLE ANLAGEN ...........................................................189 13.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................189 13.2 Situation und Trends ...........................................................................191 13.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick ....................................201 13.4 Empfehlungen .....................................................................................204 13.5 Literatur ...............................................................................................205 14 VERKEHR ......................................................................................... 209 14.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................ 209 14.2 Situation und Trends ........................................................................... 211 14.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick .................................... 218 14.4 Empfehlungen ..................................................................................... 221 14.5 Literatur ............................................................................................... 222 15 TOURISMUS ..................................................................................... 227 15.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................ 227 15.2 Situation und Trends ........................................................................... 228 15.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick .................................... 235 15.4 Empfehlungen ..................................................................................... 239 15.5 Literatur ............................................................................................... 240 16 RAUMENTWICKLUNG ................................................................... 245 16.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................ 245 16.2 Situation und Trends ........................................................................... 246 16.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick .................................... 251 16.4 Empfehlungen ..................................................................................... 254 16.5 Literatur ............................................................................................... 255 17 UMWELT UND GESUNDHEIT ...................................................... 261 17.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele ........................................................................ 261 17.2 Situation und Trends ........................................................................... 262 17.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick .................................... 266 17.4 Empfehlungen ..................................................................................... 266 17.5 Literatur ............................................................................................... 268 18 NACHHALTIGE ENTWICKLUNG ................................................ 273 18.1 Umweltpolitische Ziele und nachhaltige Entwicklung ......................... 273 18.2 Situation und Trends ........................................................................... 274 18.3 Zusammenfassende Bewertung und Ausblick .................................... 277 18.4 Empfehlungen ..................................................................................... 279 18.5 Literatur ............................................................................................... 280 19 ABKÜRZUNGSVERZEICHNIS ..................................................... 282